Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples

What Is Ecological Systems Theory?

How is a infant’s improvement suffering from their social relationships and the arena round them? Ecological structures principle offers one method to answering this question. The ecological structures principle became advanced through Urie Bronfenbrenner.

Bronfenbrenner believed that a individual’s improvement became suffering from the entirety of their surrounding surroundings. He divided the individual’s surroundings into 5 exceptional degrees: the microsystem, the mesosystem, the ecosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem. In this lesson, you’ll study those exceptional environmental degrees through assembly 5-year-antique Alex and analyzing the impacts in his life.


We will start with the primary degree of Bronfenbrenner’s principle: the microsystem. The microsystem is the gadget closest to the individual and the only wherein they’ve direct contact. Hence, some examples might be domestic, faculty, daycare, or paintings. Additionally a microsystem usually consists of family, peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional. On the contrary, your reactions to the human beings on your microsystem. Moreover will have an effect on how they deal with you in return. This is the maximum influential degree of the ecological structures principle.

Let’s study the microsystem Alex lives in. The first a part of his microsystem is his domestic surroundings. This consists of his interactions together along with his mother and father and little sister. Alex’s faculty is likewise a part of his microsystem. His everyday faculty interactions are together along with his kindergarten trainer and the alternative youngsters in his class.


The subsequent degree of ecological structures principle is the mesosystem. The mesosystem includes the interactions among the exceptional components of a individual’s microsystem. The mesosystem is in which a individual’s character microsystems do now no longer feature independently, however are interconnected and assert affect upon one another. These interactions have an oblique effect at the character.

One component of Alex’s mesosystem will be the dating among his mother and father and his trainer. Additionally, his mother and father take an energetic position in his faculty, inclusive of attending figure/trainer meetings and volunteering in his classroom. This has a fine effect on his improvement due to the fact the exceptional factors of his microsystem are operating together. Alex’s improvement will be affected in a bad manner if the exceptional factors of his microsystem have been operating in opposition to one another.


The ecosystem is the subsequent degree we are able to examine. The ecosystem refers to a putting that doesn’t contain the individual as an energetic participant, however nevertheless impacts them. This consists of choices which have bearing at the individual, however wherein they don’t have any participation within side the decision-making process. An instance might be a infant being suffering from a figure receiving a promoting at paintings or dropping their job.

One a part of Alex’s ecosystem might be his father’s workplace. Alex’s father is within side the Navy. This frequently takes him far from the family, and Alex every so often does now no longer see his father for months at a time. This scenario influences Alex, and he will become hectic while his father leaves. Alex’s tension has an impact on his improvement in different areas, despite the fact that he has no interplay together along with his father’s paintings or say within side the decision-making process.

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